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History 1700 Midterm

I’m diverting from my normal fare to work on a study guide for my History 1700 Midterm.

The book used is “The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People Concise 6th Edition”

Guide after the bump

Generic deity for native americans. From the Algonquian language.
pg. 13-14
-Spiritual authority for native americans. They we responsible for communicating with the spirit world. Probably considered a healer.
Martin Luther
– A German Friar that criticized practices in the catholic church. His revolt sparked the protestant reformation.
pg. 23
House of Burgesses
-Virginia Company (1619) created this elected assembly and was the first representative government in north america.
pg. 35, 37-39
John Winthrop
-Coined the phrase “City upon a hill”. A puritan that founded the massachusetts bay colony. Wanted to build a utopia and then bring reforms to England.
pg. 46, 53
Jonathan Edwards
-Minister of the great awakening taught that we are “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” Kickstarted religious revival in US.
pg. 67, 86-88
John Dickenson
-Published twelve essays entitled “Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania.” He argued that British Parliament had no right to do the Stamp Act or the Revenue Act.
pg. 103-104
Albany Plan of Union
– A plan that would have united the american colonists with a cohesive government under the British Empire. Proposed by Benjamin Franklin and rejected.
pg. 92, 96
Committees of Correspondence
– Used by John Adams to convince the tens of thousands of colonists that their rights were being trampled. They were, small localized committees that coordinated the colonies.
pg. 93, 108, 110, 1170
Shay’s Rebellion
-Uprising by Massachusetts farmers that convinced many Americans their government was too weak. Farmers rebelled against taxes fromt he massachusetts legislature. It failed.
pg 137-139
Whiskey Rebellion
-Tax protest by western farmers that gave Washington and Hamilton the opportunity to assert the power of the national government. Essentially from a sin tax on domestic liquor.
pg 152
Alexander Hamilton
-Wrote the federalist papers with James Maidons and John Jay. Powerfully shaped the American vision of government. Washington’s chief advisor. Worked to found the Union’s credit. Believed in a national debt to link the future of the US with creditors that wanted them to succeed.
pg 135, 143-149
John Marshall
-Chief justice of the supreme court (1819). His decisions solidified federal power over states and strengthened the rights of corporations under states.
pg 178, 188
Andrew Jackson
– “Old Hickory” a fierce Indian fighter. A hero against the British in the war of 1828-1830somthing. Became President in 1820s. Believed Indians should be integrated with states, not separate nations. Signed the Indian Removal act -> trail of tears. Blocked nullification.
pg 173, 186-187, 191-197, 215-220
Monroe Doctrine
– Proclaimed the Untied States to be primacy in the new world. Said we would block european governments from being involved in the Americas as rulers.
pg 191
Frederick Douglass
– Escaped slave. Powerful speaker and major figure in antislavery movement. Said ~”Slaves sing most their saddest”
pg. 232
Seneca Falls Convention
-First women’s rights convention. split off from anti-slavery movement by women scorned therein.
pg. 217, 233
American Renaissance
-Burst of american authors and american intellectualism. Included Emerson, Whitman, Thoreau and more. 1840-1860 ish
pg. 249-254
William Lloyd Garrison
-Started “The Liberator” newspaper for abolitionists. Demanded immediate emancipation. Contemporary with Frederick Douglass.
pg. 217, 233-236
Nat Turner
-Leader of largest slave rebellion in US History. Slaughter about 60 slave owners and was eventually hanged. Believed himself to be a prophet and took the eclipse as a sign that it was time for the black man to overcome his oppressors.
pg. 255-257, 272-277
Proslavery Argument
-Churches took up the charge and argued that slavery was a positive good. They pointed to slavery in the Bible and that proslavery societies had produced thinkers like Plato and Aristotle. They believed that Blacks in america as slaves were better off than as savages in their own countries. To do this, southern churches split from national organizations.
pg 265
James K. Polk
-11th President 1844. Believed in Manifest Destiny. Annexed Texas, Oregon, California, New Mexico. Exapansionist. Very strong president.
pg. 281, 290-293
Stephen F. Austin
-Empersario who founded Texas (originally founded Coahulia-Tejas). Fought against Santa Anna for texas independence.
pg. 286-287
Charles Sumner
-Senator from Massachusetts. He raged against slavery in Kansas and was beat with a cane by a southerner who burst into the Senate. Vigorous emancipator.
pg. 313, 328
Daniel Webster
-Secretary of state for President John Tyler (Betcha didn’t know there was a President Tyler). Advocate for new technology and industry during the turn of the century. Helped settle dispute around Texas annexation.
pg. 238, 289
John Brown
-Radical abolitionist. Tried to start rebellion at Harpers Ferry.
pg. 301-302, 313-318
Stephen A Douglas
-Senator of Illinois organized Nebraska Territory. Proposed Missouri compromise
pg. 309
William t. Sherman
-General for the North, he believed in total war. Sherman’s march burned everything in it’s path. Set aside land for freed blacks on the South Carolina sea islands.
pg. 368, 371
Robert E. Lee
-General of the southern rebellion. Orginally an officer for the Union but resigned. Surrendered April 1865.
pg. 296, 301-352
Ulysses S. Grant
-General for the Union. Appointed over the army of the Potomac and eventually defeated Robert E. Lee.
pg. 335-359, 370
Freedmen’s Bureau
-Government bureau tasked with helping freedmen (former slaves) adjust to free life. Built schools and helped freedmen find homes.
Sharecropping System
-Sharecropping allowed large land owners to lease part of their land to other farmers who would then pay a part of their crop to the owner.
pg. 369-378
Ghost Dance
-Ritual that the prophet “Wovoka” promised would restore Indians to control of their lands. Basically a return to the Indian ethics. Alarmed army and led to wounded knee massacre.
pg. 381, 386, 402
Andrew Carnegie
-Scottish immigrant who build a large steel company. Started off on the railroad, cutting costs. Sold his company to J.P. Morgan for 1/2 a billion dollars. Rags to riches story. Wrote “Gospel of Wealth” which argued for little government interference from the govt.
pg 404, 407-410, 418, 423, 425, 473
Standard Oil Trust
-Formed by Rockefeller to join all oil companies in the US and eliminate competition. Led to the Sherman anti-trust act (1890).
pg. 407, 409, 413, 425
Jane Addams
-Established “settlement houses” and won the Nobel prize. Settlement houses were like community centers for new immigrants.
pg. 429, 439-440, 450, 473, 476, 480, 505, 514, 521, 532, 540
Salvation Army
-Religious group that helped the poor. Established by a methodist minister William Booth. Helped people get jobs, food and learn to live like middle class.
pg. 429, 438, 440, 450
New Immigrants vs Old Immigrants
-New immigrants are the wave of Italians, slavs, greeks and jews migrating after 1880. They came from southern and easter europe. Poorly viewed by most old immigrants. Used by politicians to get votes.
pg. 429-440
-Strict code of gentility that permeated late 19th century society. Rejected by Twain and Frank Lloyd right. Contrasted with the rowdy new immigrants.
pg 444, 450
Populist Party
-Agrarian based party that challenged  Republicans and Democrats.
pg 451, 461-467
Open Door Notes
-Sought to trade with China. Secretary of State Haye’s attempt to keep trade open in China.
pg. 507-511, 530
William Jennings Bryan
-Orator, champion of farm interests, anti-imperialist, three time Democratic presidential candidate.
pg. 451, 453-475
W.E.B. Du Bois
-Black sociologist, later one of the founders of the NAACP. Civil rights leader author of “The Sould of Black Folk”. Kick started fight for equality.
pg. 432, 445, 449, 476, 490, 494, 503, 505, 516, 532
Booker T. Washington
-Clashed with Du Bois. A leading black figure who stressed education and acommodation
pg. 451, 463, 475-476, 497
Robert A. La Follette
-Progressive political. First a governor in wisconsin and later a senator. Antiwar. Called an “unhung traitor” by Roosevelt.
pg. 476, 483, 495, 503-505
A. Mitchell Palmer
-Attorney General. Led the way in the first Red Scare to out communists.
pg. 505, 528-529
Henry Cabot Lodge
-Expansionist Senator. Fought the league of nations.
pg. 451, 469, 505, 527
Aimee Semple McPherson
-Fundamentalist preacher. Big on the radio who used theatrics to attract people, like a score board.
pg. 550
Harlem Renaissance
-Outgrowth of black culture. Involved Jazz, writers and more.
pg. 505, 523, 532, 545-548
Eleanor Roosevelt
-Wife of FDR. She redefined the role of the first lady as a humanitarian. Influence social change and the New Deal
pg. 557-558, 562-563, 568, 585
Rosie the Riveter
-Symbol for women workers during WW2. Kick started some of modern feminism.
pg. 604-605
Atlantic Charter
-Signed by FDR and Churchill. Basically said that the water needed to be a safe place and free of agression. After German sub fired on the US, set the stage for the war with germany in WW2.
pg. 593
George Kennan
-American diplomat to Russia. Led the Cold War idea of “containment”
pg. 622, 637
Fair Deal
-Massive change in government and reforms designed to pull US out of great depression.
pg. 632, 637
Benjamin Spock
-Dr and author that strongly urged women to be fulltime mothers and to worry most about their children. Influential after WWII.
pg. 638, 652, 660
Earl Warren
-Chief Justice that broadened individual rights and ruled in “Brown Vs the board of education”. One of the judges to order desegregation of schools.
pg. 638, 641-642, 660-662
-Ginsberg and Kerouac led the beat movement. With Howl and On the Road. Scorned conformity, celebrated the outcasts and counter culture.
pg. 660-661
Rosa Parks
-Civil rights leader who refused her seat on a bus to a white man.
pg. 656, 651
Betty Friedan
-Author of “Feminine Mystique” that argued strongly against mother’s being locked into the “housewife trap”
pg.  662-663, 665, 678
Black Panthers
-A violent wing of the black civil rights movement. Argued black power. Led by Malcom X.
pg. 665, 673, 677, 683
Cesar Chavez
-Mexican immigrant who fought for labor and civil rights.
Moral Majority
-Founded by Jerry Falwell. The Moral Majority was a political evangelical group that tried to promote christian ideals and elect Pat Robertson to president.
pg. 715, 723
-Idea that if you reduce taxes the economy will boom and generate more revenue. The tax breaks to businesses would trickle down among the people.
pg. 724-725
Iran-contra scandal
-Reagan administration illegally sold weapons to Iran to finance contras.
pg. 711, 729-733
“Me” Generation
Posted Tuesday, May 18, 2010